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Law Enforcement Training

SCOTUS Cases

Key Supreme Court Cases

Overview

I. The Fourth Amendment: What is a Search?

  1. Generally

  2. Applies to Government Activities Only

  3. Reasonable Expectation of Privacy

  4. Open Fields

  5. Abandoned Property

  6. Foreign Searches

  7. Foreign Searches

  8. Third-Party Control

II. The Fourth Amendment: What is a Seizure?

  1. Generally

  2. Arrests

    1. Premises

    2. Third-Party Premises

    3. Arrest Warrants

  3. Stops

    1. Generally

    2. Terry Stops/Traffic Stops

    3. Stops at the Border

III. Levels of Suspicion

  1. Probable Cause

  2. Reasonable Suspicion

IV. Search Warrants

  1. Probable Cause

    1. Required

    2. Establishing P.C. in the Affidavit

    3. Neutral and Detached Magistrate

    4. With Particularity

  2. Serving the Warrant

    1. Knock and Announce

    2. Persons at the Premises

    3. Related Issue

V. Search Warrant Exceptions - P.C. Required

  1. Plain View

  2. Motor Vehicles

  3. Destruction of Evidence

  4. Hot Pursuit

  5. Emergency Scenes

VI. Search Warrant Exceptions - P.C. Not Required

  1. Frisks

  2. Searches Incident to Arrest

    1. Premises

    2. Persons

    3. Cell Phones

    4. Vehicles

    5. Compelled Breath/Blood Tests (DUI)

  3. Consent

  4. Inventories

  5. Inspections

    1. Structures

    2. Vehicles

    3. Parolees

    4. Special Needs

    5. Border Inspections

VII. Fourth Amendment - Exclusionary Rule

  1. Origins

  2. Fruit of the Poisonous Tree

  3. Exceptions to the Exclusionary Rule

    1. No Standing to Object

    2. Good Faith Exception

    3. Impeachment Purposes

    4. Independent Source

    5. Inevitable Discovery

    6. Attenuation

    7. Other Hearings

VIII. Related Search and Seizure Issues

  1. Officer’s Intent

  2. Other Issues

IX. The Fifth Amendment

  1. Introductory Issues

  2. Fourth Amendment Violations

  3. Due Process

  4. Testimonial Evidence

  5. Compelled

  6. Holder of the Privilege

  7. Voluntary

  8. Immunity

  9. Custodial Interrogation - Miranda

    1. Police

    2. Custody

    3. Interrogation

    4. Right to Silence

    5. Right to Counsel

    6. Waiver

    7. Government Employees

    8. Miranda Exceptions

X. The Sixth Amendment Right to Counsel

  1. Attachment of Right

  2. Critical Stages

    1. Questioning

    2. Lineups

  3. Right to Counsel

  4. Crime Specific

  5. Confrontation Clause

XI. Use of Force

  1. Generally

XII. Liability

  1. Generally

  2. Brady Material

XIII. Other Cases

  1. Generally


List of Cases

I. The Fourth Amendment: What is a Search?

  1. Generally

    Olmstead v. United States

    Katz v. United States

    United States v. Jones

  2. Applies to Government Activities Only

    New Jersey v. T.L.O

    Coolidge v. New Hampshire

    Gouled v. United States

  3. Reasonable Expectation of Privacy

    California v. Ciraolo

    Dow Chemical Co. v. United States

    Florida v. Riley

    United States v. Chadwick

    Illinois v. Andreas

    United States v. Karo

    Cardwell v. Lewis

    Kyllo v. United States

    Hoffa v. United States

    Minnesota v. Olson

    Minnesota v. Carter

    O’Connor v. Ortega

    City of Ontario v. Quon

    Hudson v. Palmer

    Maryland v. Macon

    New York v. Class

    Bond v. United States

    United States v. Place

  4. Open Fields

    Hester v. United States

    Oliver v. United States

    United States v. Dunn

  5. Abandoned Property

    California v. Greenwood

    Abel v. United States

  6. Foreign Searches

    United States v. Verdugo-Urquidez

  7. Private Intrusions

    United States v. Jacobsen

    Walter v. United States

  8. Third-Party Control

    United States v. Miller

    Smith v. Maryland

II. The Fourth Amendment: What is a Seizure?

  1. Generally

    California v. Hodari

    Brower v. Inyo County

    Michigan v. Chesternut

    Brendlin v. California

    Florida v. Bostick

    United States v. Drayton

    Soldal v. Cook County

  2. Arrests

    1. Generally

      Atwater v. City of Lago Vista

    2. Premises

      Payton v. New York

      New York v. Harris

      Kirk v. Louisiana

    3. Third-Party Premises

      Steagald v. United States

      Pembaur v. Cincinnati

    4. Arrest Warrants

      Whiteley v. Warden

      United States v. Watson

      Maryland v. Buie

  3. Stops

    1. Generally

      Terry v. Ohio

      Davis v. Mississippi

      Florida v. Royer

    2. Terry Stops/Traffic Stops

      Delaware v. Prouse

      United States v. Sharpe

      Heien v. North Carolina

      Rodriguez v. United States

      Illinois v. Caballes

      Pennsylvania v. Mimms

      Maryland v. Wilson

      United States v. Hensley

      Hayes v. Florida

    3. Stops at the Border

      United States v. Montoya de Hernandez

      Almeida-Sanchez v. United States

      United States v. Martinez-Fuerte

      United States v. Brignoni-Ponce

III. Levels of Suspicion

  1. Probable Cause

    Ornelas v. United States

    Henry v. United States

    Draper v. United States

    Sibron v. New York

    Peters v. New York

    Maryland v. Pringle

    Florida v. Harris

  2. Reasonable Suspicion

    Adams v. Williams

    Brown v. Texas

    United States v. Sokolow

    Alabama v. White

    Florida v. J. L.

    Navarette v. California

    Illinois v. Wardlow

    United States v. Arvizu

IV. Search Warrants

  1. Probable Cause

    1. Required

      Byars v. United States

      Winston v. Lee

    2. Establishing P.C. in the Affidavit

      United States v. Ventresca

      Aguilar v. Texas

      Spinelli v. United States

      Illinois v. Gates

      United States v. Harris

      United States v. Grubbs

    3. Neutral and Detached Magistrate

      Connelly v. Georgia

      Lo-Ji Sales, Inc. v. New York

    4. With Particularity

      Andresen v. Maryland

      Stanford v. Texas

      Groh v. Ramirez

      Messerschmidt v. Millender

      Maryland v. Garrison

      Steele v. United States

  2. Serving the Warrant

    1. Knock and Announce

      Sabbath v. United States

      Wilson v. Arkansas

      Hudson v. Michigan

      Richards v. Wisconsin

      United States v. Ramirez

      United States v. Banks

    2. Persons at the Premises

      Michigan v. Summers

      Muehler v. Mena

      Bailey v. United States

      Los Angeles County v. Rettele

      Ybarra v. Illinois

      Illinois v. McArthur

    3. Related Issues

      United States v. Van Leeuwen

      Segura v. United States

      Sgro v. United States

      Gooding v. United States

      Dalia v. United States

      Franks v. Delaware

      Wilson v. Layne

      Hanlon v. Berger

V. Search Warrant Exceptions - P.C. Required

  1. Plain View

    Horton v. California

    Arizona v. Hicks

    Texas v. Brown

  2. Motor Vehicles

    Carroll v. United States

    Chambers v. Maroney

    United States v. Ross

    Michigan v. Thomas

    Florida v. Myers

    United States v. Johns

    Pennsylvania v. Labron

    Maryland v. Dyson

    California v. Carney

    California v. Acevedo

    Wyoming v. Houghton

  3. Destruction of Evidence

    Kentucky v. King

    Cupp v. Murphy

    Schmerber v. California

    Missouri v. McNeely

  4. Hot Pursuit

    Warden v. Hayden

    Welsh v. Wisconsin

    United States v. Santana

  5. Emergency Scenes

    Michigan v. Tyler

    Michigan v. Clifford

    Mincey v. Arizona

    Thompson v. Louisiana

    Flippo v. West Virginia

    Brigham City v. Stuart

    Michigan v. Fisher

    Ryburn v. Huff

VI. Search Warrant Exceptions - P.C. Not Required

  1. Frisks

    Arizona v. Johnson

    Michigan v. Long

    Minnesota v. Dickerson

  2. Searches Incident to Arrest

    1. Generally

      United States v. Chadwick

    2. Premises

      Go-Bart Importing Co. v. United States

      Chimel v. California

      Agnello v. United States

      Shipley v. California

      Vale v. Louisiana

    3. Persons

      United States v. Robinson

      United States v. Edwards

      Virginia v. Moore

      Florence v. County of Burlington

      Maryland v. King

    4. Cell Phones

      Riley v. California

    5. Vehicles

      Arizona v. Gant

      New York v. Belton

      Preston v. United States

      Thornton v. United States

      Knowles v. Iowa

    6. Compelled Breath/Blood Tests (DUI)

      Birchfield v. North Dakota

  3. Consent

    United States v. Mendenhall

    Schneckloth v. Bustamonte

    Ohio v. Robinette

    Frazier v. Cupp

    Georgia v. Randolph

    Fernandez v. California

    United States v. Matlock

    Chapman v. United States

    Stoner v. California

    Illinois v. Rodriguez

    Bumper v. North Carolina

    Lewis v. United States

    Florida v. Jimeno

    Florida v. Jardines

  4. Inventories

    South Dakota v. Opperman

    Harris v. United States

    Colorado v. Bertine

    Cooper v. California

    Illinois v. Lafayette

    Florida v. Wells

  5. Inspections

    1. Structures

      See v. City of Seattle

      Camara v. Municipal Court

      Marshall v. Barlow’s Inc.

      Donovan v. Dewey

      New York v. Burger

      United States v. Biswell

      City of Los Angeles v. Patel

    2. Vehicles

      Michigan v. Sitz

      City of Indianapolis v. Edmond

      Illinois v. Lidster

    3. Parolees

      United States v. Knights

      Samson v. California

    4. Special Needs

      Skinner v. Railway Labor Executives’ Association

      National Treasury Employees Union v. Von Raab

      Ferguson v. City of Charleston

      Vernonia School District v. Acton

      Board of Education v. Earls

      Chandler v. Miller

      Wyman v. James

    5. Border Inspections

      United States v. Ramsey

      United States v. Flores-Montano

      Abel v. United States

VII. Fourth Amendment - Exclusionary Rule

  1. Origins

    Weeks v. United States

    Elkins v. United States

    Mapp v. Ohio

  2. Fruit of the Poisonous Tree

    Silverthorne Lumber Co. v. United States

    Nardone v. United States

    United States v. Ceccolini

    United States v. Crews

    Trupiano v. United States

  3. Exceptions to the Exclusionary Rule

    1. No Standing to Object

      Rawlings v. Kentucky

      Rakas v. Illinois

      Wong Sun v. United States

      United States v. Salvucci, Jr.

      United States v. Payner

      United States v. Padilla

      Alderman v. United States

      Mancusi v. DeForte

    2. Good Faith Exception

      United States v. Leon

      Massachusetts v. Sheppard

      Arizona v. Evans

      Herring v. United States

      Davis v. United States

      Illinois v. Krull

    3. Impeachment Purposes

      Walder v. United States

      United States v. Havens

      James v. Illinois

    4. Independent Source

      Murray v. United States

    5. Inevitable Discovery

      Nix v. Williams

    6. Attenuation

      Utah v. Strieff

    7. Other Hearings

      United States v. Calandra

      Pennsylvania Board of Probation and Parole v. Scott

VIII. Related Search and Seizure Issues

  1. Officer’s Intent

    Whren v. United States

    Devenpeck v. Alford

    Arkansas v. Sullivan

  2. Other Issues

    G. M. Leasing Corp. v. United States

    Florida v. White

    Kolender v. Lawson

    Hiibel v. Sixth Judicial District Court

    Gerstein v. Pugh

    Zurcher v. Stanford Daily

    A Quantity of Copies of Books v. Kansas

IX. The Fifth Amendment

  1. Introductory Issues

    Malloy v. Hogan

    Corley v. United States

    Brogan v. United States

    Mitchell v. United States

  2. Fourth Amendment Violations

    Dunaway v. New York

    New York v. Harris

    Brown v. Illinois

    Taylor v. Alabama

    Kaupp v. Texas

  3. Due Process

    Foster v. California

    Stovall v. Denno

    Neil v. Biggers

    Perry v. New Hampshire

    Simmons v. United States

    Manson v. Brathwaite

  4. Testimonial Evidence

    Schmerber v. California

    United States v. Dionisio

    United States v. Mara

  5. Compelled

    Brown v. Mississippi

    Andresen v. Maryland

    United States v. Doe

    United States v. Hubbell

    United States v. Balsys

  6. Holder of the Privilege

    Braswell v. United States

    Couch v. United States

    Doe v. United States

    Fisher v. United States

    Bellis v. United States

  7. Voluntary

    Rogers v. Richmond

    Lynumn v. Illinois

    Colorado v. Connelly

    Arizona v. Fulminante

    Beecher v. Alabama

    Haynes v. Washington

    Townsend v. Sain

    Lego v. Twomey

    Spano v. New York

  8. Immunity

    Murphy et. al. v. Waterfront Commission of New York Harbor

    Kastigar v. United States

    Ohio v. Reiner

  9. Custodial Interrogation - Miranda

    1. Generally

      Miranda v. Arizona

      Dickerson v. United States

      Florida v. Powell

    2. Police

      Illinois v. Perkins

      Arizona v. Mauro

    3. Custody

      Berkemer v. McCarty

      Pennsylvania v. Bruder

      Oregon v. Mathiason

      Beckwith v. United States

      Orozco v. Texas

      Mathis v. United States

      Howes v. Fields

      Stansbury v. California

      California v. Beheler

      Thompson v. Keohane

      Yarborough v. Alvarado

      J. D. B. v. North Carolina

    4. Interrogation

      Rhode Island v. Innis

      Pennsylvania v. Muniz

    5. Right to Silence

      Salinas v. Texas

      Berghuis v. Thompkins

      Jenkins v. Anderson

      Fletcher v. Weir

      United States v. Hale

      Doyle v. Ohio

      Michigan v. Mosley

    6. Right to Counsel

      Edwards v. Arizona

      Arizona v. Roberson

      Minnick v. Mississippi

      Maryland v. Shatzer

      Davis v. United States

      Smith v. Illinois

      McNeil v. Wisconsin

      Oregon v. Bradshaw

    7. Waiver

      Colorado v. Spring

      Connecticut v. Barrett

      California v. Prysock

      Duckworth v. Eagan

      North Carolina v. Butler

      Oregon v. Elstad

      Missouri v. Seibert

      Bobby v. Dixon

      Michigan v. Tucker

      United States v. Patane

      Chavez v. Martinez

      Moran v. Burbine

    8. Government Employees

      Gardner v. Broderick

      Garrity v. New Jersey

      Kalkines v. United States

      Lefkowitz v. Turley

      LaChance v. Erickson

      NASA v. FLRA

    9. Miranda Exceptions

      Harris v. New York

      New York v. Quarles

X. The Sixth Amendment Right to Counsel

  1. Attachment of Right

    Kirby v. Illinois

    Montejo v. Louisiana

    Rothgery v. Gillespie County

    United States v. Gouveia

  2. Critical Stages

    1. Questioning

      Brewer v. Williams

      Patterson v. Illinois

      United States v. Henry

      Kuhlmann v. Wilson

      Fellers v. United States

    2. Lineups

      Gilbert v. California

      United States v. Wade

  3. Right to Counsel

    Massiah v. United States

  4. Crime Specific

    Maine v. Moulton

    Texas v. Cobb

  5. Confrontation Clause

    Melendez-Diaz v. Massachusetts

    Bullcoming v. New Mexico

    Michigan v. Bryant

    Hardy v. Cross

XI. Use of Force

  1. Generally

    Graham v. Connor

    Tennessee v. Garner

    Scott v. Harris

    Plumhoff v. Rickard

    City & Cnty. of San Francisco v. Sheehan

    Mullenix v. Luna

    Kinglsey v. Hendrickson

XII. Liability

  1. Generally

    Bivens v. Six Unknown Named Agents of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics

    County Of Sacramento v. Lewis

    Malley v. Briggs

    Saucier v. Katz

    Reichle v. Howards

    Wood v. Moss

    Millbrook v. United States

  2. Brady Material

    Brady v. Maryland

    Banks v. Dretke

    Giglio v. United States

    Smith v. Cain

XIII. Other Cases

  1. Generally

    Riverside v. McLaughlin

    Sanchez-Llamas v. Oregon

    Snyder v. Phelps

    Smith v. United States